A patent, in legal terms, is a granted right that bestows exclusivity to the inventor over their creation. In Nigeria, three distinct types of patents exist:

*Utility Patents: These cover new and practical processes or machines, including improvements on existing ones.

*Design Patents: They pertain to original, ornamental designs that are applied to an article of manufacture.

*Plant Patents: These are granted for the invention or discovery of distinct and new varieties of plants, other than tuber propagated plants or fungi.

Eligibility Criteria for Patent Registration

Eligibility to apply for a patent in Nigeria is not confined to local inventors. Individuals, corporations, and even foreign entities can seek patent protection, provided that the applicant is either the true inventor or holds legal rights to the invention.

Patentable Inventions

Patents are granted for inventions that are both novel and useful. This includes processes, machines, manufactures, and compositions of matter. However, abstract ideas, laws of nature, and naturally occurring substances are ineligible for patent protection.

Documentation and Information Required

A meticulously prepared application is the foundation of a successful patent registration. This encompasses:

1. Completed patent application forms containing;

*Applicant’s full name and address


*A declaration signed by the true inventor

*An address for service in Nigeria (for people who live outside Nigeria)

2. A comprehensive description of the invention, detailing its novelty and utility.

3. Technical drawings, diagrams, or other visual aids to augment the written description.

This application is then submitted to the Nigerian Patent Office.

Novelty and Prior Art Search

Prior to submitting an application, a thorough prior art search is imperative. This involves examining existing patents, publications, and technologies to ascertain the novelty of the proposed invention. This process helps prevent the duplication of existing knowledge and ensures that the invention meets the criteria for patentability.

Examination Process and Timelines

Upon submission, the Nigerian Patent Office undertakes a meticulous examination of the application. This process can extend over several months, during which the applicant may be required to provide additional information or address inquiries from the examining authority. Patience and a willingness to engage in this dialogue are pivotal to the successful registration of a patent.

Cost and Fees

Securing a patent in Nigeria involves various costs, including filing fees, examination fees, and maintenance fees. These fees may vary based on the type of patent sought and the applicant’s status (individual, business, or foreign entity). A clear understanding of the fee structure is essential for budgeting and planning.

Enforcement and Protection of Patents

Once a patent is granted, it confers exclusive rights upon the holder to produce, use, and sell the patented invention. In the event of infringement, the patent holder has legal recourse to seek remedies through the Nigerian legal system.

In conclusion, comprehending the intricacies of patent registration in Nigeria is crucial for inventors and entrepreneurs. Navigating this process necessitates meticulous documentation, thorough research, and adherence to legal protocols. Seeking professional advice can be invaluable in ensuring a successful patent application. By securing patents, inventors not only protect their creations but also contribute to the progress and prosperity of the nation.

Patent registration can be complex. It is very important that Patent’s applicant engages accredited agent with Patent Registry to file the application and represents the applicant all through the entire process.

By Adeola Oyinlade & Co

Note: The content of this article is anticipated to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

Adeola Oyinlade & Co provides help and offer advisory to both local and foreign clients in patent registration in Nigeria.

Need help? Kindly contact us using the details below:

Email: info@adeolaoyinlade.com

Mobile: +234 803 826 7683 / +234 802 686 0247

× Need help? Available on SundayMondayTuesdayWednesdayThursdayFridaySaturday